Urinalysis is a diagnostic process that involves an examination of the physical and chemical properties of urine. It is used for various medical purposes, such as to detect and monitor a wide range of diseases and health conditions, including kidney disease, urinary tract infections, diabetes, and some forms of cancer. Urinalysis can also evaluate hydration status and detect levels of certain medications or toxins in the body. During the urinalysis process, a sample of urine is collected and tested for different components that may show an underlying medical condition. Physical testing may involve appearance, odour, colour, clarity, volume, and specific gravity. Other tests that may be employed include pH, proteins, glucose, ketones, urobilinogen, bilirubin, nitrites, and other components. These tests help assess the overall health of an individual.
A normal urinalysis typically includes microscopic analysis, chemical testing, and a physical or visual examination of a urine sample. Microscopic analysis involves measuring the number of red blood cells (RBCs) and white blood cells (WBCs) present in the urine. Chemical tests measure the amount of glucose, ketones, proteins, bilirubin, urobilinogen, nitrites, and pH in the urine. Visual inspection assesses the colour, clarity, and odour of the sample. A normal urinalysis will have no abnormal results for any of these tests; levels of RBCs and WBCs should be low, while glucose, ketones, proteins, bilirubin, urobilinogen, nitrites, and pH should all remain within their normal ranges.
The four components of a urinalysis include physical characteristics, chemical tests, microscopic examination, and urine culture. During the physical examination, colour, clarity, and odour of the urine are evaluated. The chemical examination includes testing for pH, specific gravity, protein, glucose, ketones, bilirubin, and urobilinogen levels. In the microscopic examination, several elements can be identified under the microscope, such as bacteria, cells or crystals in the urine. A urine culture is often performed to detect any bacterial presence in the urine sample.
A urine test is a simple analysis of the urine sample, typically measuring parameters such as volume, creatinine and specific gravity. Urine tests are used to screen for certain medical conditions, detect levels of drugs or other substances absorbed in the body, or monitor certain metabolic processes. A urinalysis is a much more comprehensive examination of a urine sample that can provide detailed information about many aspects of health. A urinalysis looks at a range of parameters including various types of cells, bacteria, proteins, and other substances. Urinalysis is used to diagnose kidney and urinary tract diseases such as infection, inflammation, and blockages.
A urinalysis can detect one or more infections in the urinary tract, including bacterial infections such as cystitis, urethritis and pyelonephritis, as well as fungal infections such as Candidiasis and other parasitic infections. Urinalysis can also detect sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including Chlamydia, Herpes simplex virus, Gonorrhoea and Trichomonas. Certain concentrations of proteins and glucose may show an underlying medical condition or kidney problems.