1.1 Analyse different models of communication a. Transactional analysis, b. Lasswell’s

1.1 Analyse different models of communication: a. Transactional analysis, b. Lasswell’s

Advanced Communication Skills

Care Learning

5 mins READ

This guide will help you answer RQF Level 4 Diploma in Adult Care Unit 1.2 Analyse why individuals communicate

Analysing different models of communication helps care workers understand the mechanisms of interaction, aiding in effective and empathetic communication with clients, colleagues, and other stakeholders.

We will look at two prominent models: Transactional Analysis and Lasswell’s Communication Model.

Transactional Analysis (TA)

Transactional Analysis (TA) is a psychoanalytic theory and method of therapy developed by Dr Eric Berne in the late 1950s.

It provides a framework for understanding human interactions and aids in improving communication by recognising the roles individuals play in social exchanges.

Key Components of TA

Ego States:

  • Parent: This ego state incorporates attitudes and behaviours learnt from authority figures, such as parents, teachers, and societal norms. It can be nurturing (caring and protective) or critical (controlling and evaluative).
  • Adult: This is the rational, logical, and objective state that processes information and makes informed decisions based on reality.
  • Child: This ego state reflects our internal reactions and feelings from childhood. It can be adaptive (submissive or compliant) or free (spontaneous and expressive).

Transactions:

  • A transaction is an exchange of communication with another person. Transactions can be complementary (harmonious), crossed (conflicting), or ulterior (hidden agendas).

Strokes:

  • Strokes are units of recognition, and they can be positive or negative. Positive strokes affirm individuals, while negative strokes can undermine or criticise.

Life Scripts:

  • Life scripts are unconscious life plans developed in childhood that dictate our behaviour and interactions.

Application in Adult Care:

  • Understanding Ego States: Recognising which ego state a client or colleague is operating from can help the care worker interact more empathetically and effectively.
  • Managing Transactions: Knowing how to keep transactions complementary can aid in maintaining positive relationships. For example, responding with the Adult ego state to an upset colleague (who may be operating from the Child state) can de-escalate potential conflict.
  • Delivering Strokes: Offering positive strokes, such as praise and encouragement, can boost client morale and enhance their well-being.
  • Reflective Practice: TA encourages self-reflection, helping care workers understand their behaviours and the impact on others, ultimately fostering a more supportive care environment.

Lasswell’s Communication Model

Harold D. Lasswell’s model, developed in 1948, provides a straightforward, linear structure for understanding the communication process.

It is expressed in the form of a question:

“Who says what in which channel to whom with what effect?”

Key Components of Lasswell’s Model:

  • Who (Communicator):
    • The source or sender of the message.
    • In a care setting, this could be a healthcare professional, care worker, or client.
  • Says What (Message):
    • The content or information conveyed.
    • This includes verbal and non-verbal messages, including instructions, requests, and emotional expressions.
  • In Which Channel (Medium or Channel):
    • The means or medium through which the message is transmitted.
    • Channels can be face-to-face, written, telephone, digital (emails, text messages), or even body language.
  • To Whom (Receiver):
    • The recipient or audience of the message.
    • In adult care, receivers can be clients, their families, or multidisciplinary team members.
  • With What Effect (Effect):
    • The outcome or impact of the message.
    • This could involve changes in understanding, attitudes, feelings, or behaviours.

Application in Adult Care

Care Planning and Delivery: Understanding who the communicators are (e.g., care worker to client) and tailoring messages appropriately can improve care efficacy. For example, explaining a treatment plan clearly and compassionately can enhance client cooperation and compliance.

Choosing the Right Channel: Considering the most effective communication channel is crucial. Face-to-face interactions might be best for sensitive conversations, while written messages might be appropriate for documenting treatment plans.

Evaluating Impact: Reflecting on the effects of communication helps in assessing whether the message was understood and appropriately responded to. This informs future interactions and enhances communication strategies.

Training and Development: Applying Lasswell’s model can aid in the training of care workers to ensure they communicate effectively across different contexts and with various stakeholders.

Example Answers for 1.1 Analyse different models of communication: a. Transactional analysis, b. Lasswell’s

Below are some example answers that a student might provide when analysing the different models of communication for Unit 1.1 of the RQF Level 4 Diploma in Adult Care.

Example Answer for Transactional Analysis

Transactional Analysis (TA) is a communication model developed by Dr Eric Berne. It helps us understand and improve our interactions with clients, colleagues, and other stakeholders in adult care.

1. Ego States:
TA describes three ego states: Parent, Adult, and Child. The Parent state consists of behaviours and attitudes we’ve learned from authoritative figures. The Adult state is rational and logical, making informed decisions based on reality. The Child state is emotional and can be spontaneous or compliant.

Example in Adult Care:
When working with a client who is frustrated and acting out (operating from the Child state), it’s essential that I respond from my Adult state rather than my Parent state. This way, I can de-escalate the situation by being calm and rational, helping the client feel understood rather than controlled or criticised.

2. Transactions:
Transactions are exchanges of communication. They can be complementary (effective), crossed (conflicting), or ulterior (hidden agendas).

Example in Adult Care:
If a colleague criticises my work (crossed transaction), instead of reacting defensively (Child state), I respond from my Adult state by asking for specific feedback and how I can improve. This keeps the interaction constructive.

3. Strokes:
Strokes are units of recognition. Positive strokes affirm and encourage individuals, while negative strokes can demoralise them.

Example in Adult Care:
Providing positive strokes by praising a client for their progress (e.g., “You’ve made great strides in your mobility exercises this week!”) can boost their confidence and motivation.

4. Life Scripts:
Life scripts are unconscious life patterns formed in childhood that influence our behaviour.

Example in Adult Care:
Understanding my own life script and those of my clients can help me navigate interactions more empathetically, recognising why certain behaviours or responses occur and addressing them supportively.

Example Answer for Lasswell’s Communication Model

Lasswell’s Communication Model is a linear model that breaks down the communication process into five components: Who, Says What, In Which Channel, To Whom, and With What Effect.

1. Who (Communicator):
The communicator is the sender of the message.

Example in Adult Care:
As a care worker, I might be the communicator when informing a client about their treatment plan.

2. Says What (Message):
The message is the content of the communication.

Example in Adult Care:
The message could be explaining the benefits and steps of a new physiotherapy exercise.

3. In Which Channel (Medium or Channel):
The channel is the medium through which the message is sent.

Example in Adult Care:
I may choose face-to-face communication for detailed explanations to ensure the client understands and can ask questions. Alternatively, written communication might be used to provide instructions that clients can refer to later.

4. To Whom (Receiver):
The receiver is the target audience of the message.

Example in Adult Care:
The receiver could be the client themselves, their family members, or other members of the care team.

5. With What Effect (Effect):
The effect is the outcome or impact of the message.

Example in Adult Care:
The desired effect might be that the client understands the new exercise, feels motivated to participate, and correctly follows the instructions. Evaluating the effect involves checking in with the client to ensure the message was clear and effective.

Conclusion

By understanding and analysing both Transactional Analysis and Lasswell’s Communication Model, care workers can enhance their communication skills, leading to better client outcomes and more effective teamwork.

These models offer rich insights into the dynamics of human interaction, crucial for delivering high-quality adult care.

How useful was this post?

Click on a star to rate it!

As you found this post useful...

Follow us on social media!

We are sorry that this post was not useful for you!

Let us improve this post!

Tell us how we can improve this post?

You cannot copy content of this page